One of the most important roles of any archaeologist is to communicate their findings to others, be they fellow archaeologists or members of the public. The strongest and most direct method of imparting information is by visual means, be it site plans, reconstructions, artefact photography or illustration. Rubicon prides itself on its graphics department, which is one of the largest and most accomplished in Europe. One of the most technical and challenging aspects of archaeological graphics is artefact illustration, a technique discussed by AAI&S board member and Rubicon Illustrator Sara Nylund.
The archaeological profession and its sub discipline of archaeological illustration have seen astonishing leaps in technology over the last number of years. The realm of archaeological graphics is now dominated by the computer, on which the vast majority of work from the site plan to 3-D flythrough takes place. One could easily be led to believe that all the traditional methods of recording finds are being replaced with new techniques. Yet even though new, sometimes mindboggling technologies are available, archaeologists turn to one traditional method time and time again for a record of their finds – Artefact illustration.
Artefact illustration – just a pretty finds drawing?
So what is an artefact illustration when it really comes down to it, and why has it not been replaced with 3-D scanning or a straightforward photograph? Surely the first would give much more information on the object and in a 3-D environment to boot, and the second would represent a huge saving in both time and expense?
Ultimately it all comes down to one thing, the trained illustrator’s ability to interpret the object requiring drawing. The purpose of an artefact illustration is to act as a true record of the object and its material condition, to show any diagnostic features and manufacturing techniques present. A drawing of this type is interpretative; it contains information on size, shape, decoration, manufacturing techniques, thickness and appearance of fabric, and shape in section. To achieve this, artefact illustrations often contain several views as well as sections and projections of the artefact. Finally, the finished illustration must convey to the viewer any aesthetic qualities inherent in the object.
This is why a scanner or camera cannot replace the illustrator. These techniques will document the find “objectively” (however, most digital software and hardware have inherent problems which although viewed as producing objective and precise reproductions will introduce misinformation or distortions, but these are a topic for another day).
When reviewing a finds illustration, here are some straightforward guidelines in recognizing a good artefactual drawing. The general layout of the drawing will be set out in an organised and logical manner, and the drawing will be clean and tidy in appearance. The light source is always placed in the upper left hand corner, and the main view of the artefact is depicted straight on, with accompanying secondary and section views (generally at a 90° angle to each other). Depending on the type of find, the illustration will be rendered in different ways using stippling and lines where appropriate. Finally the illustration should show original features as clearly distinguished from damaged areas.
Archaeology will always require illustrators who can produce a visual record suitable for publication of the finds uncovered. Artefactual drawing requires a more scientific approach than a pictorial study would, while still demanding the same skills required from a traditional artist. In this, computers have yet to replace the human touch. But then again who knows what the future will bring?